Phylum:Basidiomycota >> Class: Basidiomycetes >>  Order: Tremellales 
 BCRC Number NO BCRC Number!  
 Scientific Name: Tremella mesenterica

Tremella mesenterica Retz, Fr. Fries, Syst. Myc. 2: 214. 1822.

 Description: Basidiocarps large and conspicuous, ca. 5 cm ø, gelatinous, pustular when young, foliose when mature, lobes undulate-plicate; pure yellow to yellowish orange; pallid to whitish yellow under dark environment; young basidiocarps orange, color reduced when basidiocarps mature; dry becoming pure yellow to yellowish orange. Basidia two types: type I subglobose to broadly ellipsoid, 20-23(-25) × (17-) 18-22(-23) μm [Q=(0.95-)1.12-1.31]; type II oval, (20-)24-31(-35) × (15-) 16-20 μm [Q=1.40-1.82(-2.19)]; longitudinally or obliquely cruciate-septate, 4-spored; sterigma up to 105 μm in length, 2-3 μm ø, apically swollen up to 5-7 μm. Spores broadly ellipsoid to oval, (10-)12-15.5 × (7-)9-10(-12) μm [Q=1.20-1.40(-1.61)], smooth, hyaline, germinating by repetition or budding. Conidia ellipsoid, fusiform to cylindrical, 3-5(-7) × 1.0-2.0 μm [Q=1.5-3.3(-7)], smooth, hyaline, clamped; orange in color. Vesicles variable, sometimes bearing from hyphae, occasionally bearing from swollen vesicle-like cells, globose, subglobose to ellipsoid, (12-)14-21 × (9-)11-16.5(-19) μm [Q=1.00-1.18(-1.42)]; when ovate to clavate, mostly 22-27 × 15-17 μm [Q=1.35-1.92]; sometimes lanceolate (lance-shaped), mostly 34-35 × 7-10 μm [Q=3.5-4.86]; thick-walled, 2-3.5 μm in thickness. Swollen cells always on basal parts of mature basidiocarps close to the substrate, big, clamped, colorless; when citriniform, mostly 26-37 × (13-)16-22 μm [Q=1.30-1.85(-2.19)]; when broadly pyriform, 18-24 × 13-18 μm (not including stalks) [Q= 1.14-1.40], stalks often 2-5 × 1-2 μm, sometimes up to 16 μm [if data including stalks, then mostly 20-39 × 13-18 μm, Q=1.31-1.95]; when subglobose to oval, (15-)21-29(-34) × (12-)17-26 μm [Q=(1.00-)1.06-1.42(-1.61)]; bearing on citriniform, broadly pyriform (mostly with short stalk) or subglobose to globose cells. Terminally swollen cells in the hymenium colorless, globose to ellipsoid, mostly 3-9 × 3-8 μm [Q=1.00-1.23], sometimes oval, 7-10 × 4-5 μm [Q=1.71-2.22]. Some terminally and laterally swollen cells in subhymenium and mostly in the inner part of basidiocarps, oval, 12-17 × 5-6 μm [Q=2-3.4]. Hyphidia present but not abundant, 2-4 μm ø; thin- to slightly thick-walled, gelatinous. Hyphae mostly 2-3 μm ø, sometimes up to 4 μm in the inner part of basidiocarps; thin- to thick-walled, gelatinous; clamps abundant, closed or medallion, sometimes loop-like forming a big hollow. Haustoria abundant in the inner part of basidiocarps close to bark, globose to oblong, 3-6(-7) × 2.5-4 μm [Q=1.3-2.0(-2.3)], mostly with slender, long branched, tortuous hyphae.

Taiwan, Taichung county, Tasheshan Forest, 2000-230 0 m, leg. C.-J. Chen, 21. III. 1995, CCJ 1040 & CCJ 1041, on decayed branches of Fagus sylvatica or Abies alba.

 Habitat: null



Brefeld, O. 1888; Chen, CJ. 1998; Coker, WC. 1920; Donk, MA. 1966; Looney, AM. 1933; Lowy, B. 1971; Olive, LS. 1946; Olive, LS. 1947.


C. J. Chen

 Note: Brefeld (1888) treated Tremella lutescens as a synonym of T. mesenterica because they are apparently not specifically distinct. Since then these two names had been taken in synonym by a number of mycologists (Coker, 1920; Looney, 1933; Whelden, 1934; Olive, 1947; Donk, 1966; Lowy, 1971). However, the most European and some other mycologists still had retained them as distinct until 1960th (Neuhoff, 1936; Kobayasi 1939; Olive 1946). However, they have been generally accepted to be synonym by most of the mycologists right now. Both taxa were originally described from Europe according to existing (T. mesenterica) or absent (T. lutescens) conidia stage. Bandoni (1957) thought these two taxa can only be cleared by studying and comparing the European material since the taxonomy is in such a confused state. A number of mycologists have studied both species listed in Table 7, however, those data are ambiguous to understand the real measurements of their basidia and basidiospores.